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Complexity comes from the noun complex, which represents “an assemblage of related things”(https://etymologeek.com/eng/complexity). Complexity is defined as “that which is and renders complex; intricacy” and “the state of being complex; intricacy; entanglement” (https://etymologeek.com/eng/complexity).
Following is a formal definition of the term complex system:
A system in which large networks of components with no central control and simple rules of operation give rise to complex collective behavior, sophisticated information processing, and adaptation via learning or evolution. (Mitchell, 2009, p. 13)
Complex systems are those systems that are:
Found in the translational space between order and chaos; they are charged by their potential to slip into chaos while human nature works desperately to tame them into order. Poised between order and chaotic systems, complex systems are brimming with potential at all times. (Pendleton-Jullian & Brown, 2018, p. 45)